Mycotoxins which are secondary metabolites produced by various types of fungi that are toxic to humans, animals and plants, that is poison, can be caused by food digestion, airborne inhalation, or dermal absorption, different diseases and even death.
Aflatoxins named after Aspergillus genus and flavus; is the type of mycotoxin that leads to the biggest losses with the highest management cost and high toxicity; In Livestock, mycotoxins disrupt the function of the liver for poor performance; it is a fact that it has also decreased in feed consumption, weakened immune system and thus more susceptible to diseases, reproductive disorders, decreased body weight and animal foods.
Whether in poultry or ruminants; one of the most common uses against aflatoxins, toxin can be attached to feed by the use of aluminosilicates such as clay, bentonite montmorillonite, zeolite, aqueus sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and activated carbons, as well as non-digestible complex carbohydrates (bacteria and yeast cell walls), enzymes, vitamins, amino acid and cholesterolroline is broken down into non-toxic metabolites using synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl-polypyrolidone polymers (PVPP).
A good toxin binder can restore the nutritional value of aflatoxin contaminated feeds.
While there are so many toxin binders on the market; How do end-users / enterprises /Farms decide which toxin binder will be the easiest to apply and affordable for them?
1. Binding capacity;
2. Absorption efficiency;
3. Impact time;
4. Usage Ratio in the Feed.
The aflatoxin binding process is based on the principle of electrical polarity. Since the negative electrical polarity of the toxin is connected by the positive electrical polarity of the binder, the toxins are immobilized and then excreted by the animal. This binding capacity is usually expressed in the amount of aflatoxins bound by 1 g of toxin binder in milligrams.
Absorption efficiency; the particles of most toxin binders expand as soon as they come into contact with water.
Due to this expansion, small molecules (including aflatoxins) are absorbed into the particle. It temporarily immobilizes aflatoxins.
However, this mode of action has two major disadvantages;
First, there are toxin binders that absorb more than just toxins. There is a lot of research showing that valuable nutrients are absorbed by toxin binders. Although the harm of aflatoxicosis can be prevented, this still causes economic losses because digestible nutrient levels are significantly reduced.
The second drawback of absorption is that toxin molecules are absorbed like a sponge, but are not actually particle-bound. In practice, this means that after a while, toxic molecules can return to the gastrointestinal tract.
Activation usually takes place in the gastro-intestinal tract and becomes active as soon as they come into contact with water. The reaction time is the time between the first contact with water and the start of the binding or absorption process.
It is not beneficial for the poultry animals to have an activation time of more than two hours, since the absorption of nutrients and toxins by the animal is already fully progressing.
Although it is basically an economic parameter, the last criterion that is not neglected; It is the rate that usage ratio in the Feed. If the price of a toxin binder is not compared with its quality and feed rate, it does not matter. What matters in the end is the efficiency per kilogram of final feed.